Prevalent in Europe and especially France from the late 18th and the first two decades of the 19th century. Inspired by Neoclassicism were the findings from recent excavations at Pompeii. Ideological basis of Neoclassicism was the Enlightenment, the triumph of Reason. Neoclassicism aspires to restore the strict morals of ancient art and the harmony arising from the measure, order, symmetry, proportions. The protagonists of the Revolution, who considered themselves the genuine descendants of the heroes of antiquity, found in the neoclassical perfect expression of their ideas. The main painter of Neoclassicism in France was a revolutionary and Jacobin. That was Jacques Louis David, 1748-1825.

Academic Art

Academism constitutes an effort to codify the rules of art and defends the classical ideals of beauty and artistic perfection, whereas it creates a clear hierarchy within the scope preferring the great historical narratives, the representation of real life and classical sculpture. The theme should be gentle -  a battle of a heroic act. The concept in the present case kindness, must be inherent in the entire project and not added as an independent subject. The structure should be as natural as possible, but so thoroughly impressed and in a such fluid state that the gaze should be fixed on the table in a way that fits with the theme and meaning. Finally, style is a matter of individual talent in both the handling of colors and the use of ideas. In this figure, the plan is the key element. The values of academicism formed the core of the Enlightenment movement in what concerned the discovery of principles and ideas upon which it could be inferred with the certainty that art ensures the beauty and truth.


The movement succeded in neoclassicism, and grows as opposed to its principles, is Romanticism. It was named after English gardens, which, unlike the French, which were geometric, seemed to be free and picturesque  nature. So they were reminiscent of the nature described in the novels. Neoclassicism praises the logic and order Romance gives precedence to the most personal aspects of consciousness, dream and imagination.

In a broad sense, the term "romantic" refers to any artwork in which dominate subjective states such feelings, mood or intuition. In very general terms, the art of each era can be divided into "romantic" emphasizing particularly the human emotions and insticts and "classical", in which form, structure or rules of composition are more important... Indicated in 1820 and exists to mid 19th century, when he was succeeded by his realism. One of the greatest artists were the romantic painter Eugene Delacroix French, 1790-1863. Many of his compositions inspired by the Greek Revolution.


Realism has been mainly developed in France since the mid 19th century. The social context is the industrial revolution, the new social consciousness, the first socialist theories and positivism. The logic and belief in the possibilities of exploring the word armed with the new experimental science. Realism actually lands and abandons their religious, mythological and historical subjects. It wants to portray things as they are free to embellish, based on observation of nature. Many of the themes of realistic painting were considered immoral, because they were in conflict with established views on "good taste". The main representative of Realism in France is the revolutionary painter Courbet Gkystav, 1819-1877.